Ingredients: 100% CHAMPIGNON MUSHROOM [Agaricus bisporus] POWDER.
Description Sports Biofoods ORGANIC CHAMPIGNON MUSHROOM [Agaricus bisporus] POWDER • is an organic vegetable powder for a healthy lifestyle. Make certain you eat well-balanced, varied meals each day and drink sufficient amounts of fluid. Store dry, away from light, at 15-20°C/60-68 °F, out of the reach of children.
Add to hamburgers, omelettes, smoothies, yogurt, or mix as last ingredient into soups and vinaigrettes; sprinkle into salads or sandwich fixings.
Recommended use: 1g per portion.
Role of Vitamin D in Athletes and Their Performance:
Current Concepts and New Trends
Mirian de la Puente Yagüe 1, Luis Collado Yurrita 2, *, Maria J. Ciudad Cabañas 2 and
Marioa A. Cuadrado Cenzual 2
1 Department of Public and Maternal Child Health University, School of Medicine, Complutense University of
Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain;
email@example.com (M.J.C.C.); firstname.lastname@example.org (M.A.C.C.)
* Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.:+34-913-941-599
Received: 14 January 2020; Accepted: 18 February 2020; Published: 23 February 2020
Abstract: We are currently experiencing a vitamin D (VITD) deficiency pandemic across the world.
Athletes have the same predisposition to low levels of vitamin D, the majority of its concentrations
being below 20 ng/mL in a wide range of sports, especially in the winter months. Vitamin D is
important in bone health, but recent research also points out its essential role in extraskeletal functions,
including skeletal muscle growth, immune and cardiopulmonary functions and inflammatory
modulation, which influence athletic performance. Vitamin D can also interact with extraskeletal
tissues to modulate injury recovery and also influence the risk of infection. The data presented in this
paper has triggered investigations in relation to the importance of maintaining adequate levels of
vitamin D and to the possible positive influence supplementation has on immune and musculoskeletal
functions in athletes, benefiting their performance and preventing future injuries. The objective of
this review is to describe the latest research conducted on the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency
and its eects on sports performance and musculoskeletal health.
Keywords: vitamin D; athletic performance; 25(OH)D; supplementation; deficiency; athlete
Conclusions The purpose of our review was to investigate the relevance of vitamin D in athletic performance. We review recent advances in this field and novel insights about vitamin D supplementation in athletes. Low vitamin D status could negatively impact the health and training eciency of athletes. Research to date suggests that certain athletes are at risk for suboptimal vitamin D status, which may increase risks for stress fractures, acute illness, and suboptimal muscle function. The emerging evidence about vitamin D and athletic performance suggests the need to determine vitamin D concentration in athletes but further research is necessary to characterize the true vitamin D status by simply measuring free vitamin D rather than total 25-OHVITD. In relation to the prevention of vitamin D deficiency, we must be aware that sun exposure is the main source. Unfortunately, there is evidence concerned about the possibility that sun exposure, if uncontrolled, may promote skin cancer. On the other hand, we must also take account nutrition in athletes and vitamin D. A personalized nutrition plan should develop. Suciency of essential minerals and micronutrients, like magnesium, are critical to enhancing activation of vitamin D. One interesting theory is based on individual molecular response to vitamin D. Athletes with personalized supplementation of vitamin D, will contribute to obtain optimized clinical benefits. Future studies could determine the optimal VITD threshold and determine supplementation recommendations. Although previous studies seem to suggest that VITD supplementation in athletes may have a beneficial eect on athletic performance, these results cannot be generalized. Unnecessary supplementation with high doses of vitamin D might be a relatively common practice, without proven benefit, and even with the risk of harm. Future research is needed, focusing on double-blinded supplementation and optimal VITD levels in athletes and to investigate VITD potentially positive influence on exercise performance and the benefits of VITD supplementation on athletic performance.